Routino : Tagging Rules

Tags And Attributes

The different tags and attributes in the OSM format XML that are used by Routino are described below.

Routino handles the tags in the input file after they have been processed according to a set of rules defined in a configuration file. The first half of this file describes the tags that are recognised by Routino after being processed; the second half of the file describes the transformations that are in the default tagging configuration file.

Tags Recognised After Processing

This section describes the tags that are recognised by Routino after the tag transformations have been applied. This is therefore a much reduced set of tags compared to the original OSM data and also includes tags which are specific to Routino.

In all cases of tag processing values of true, yes, 1 are recognised as being affirmative and any other value is negative.

Node Tags And Attributes

The node attributes id, latitude and longitude are used. The id attribute is required to associate the node with the ways and the position attributes are required to locate the node.

Transport Specific Tags

One tag is recognised for each of the different modes of transport: foot, horse, bicycle, wheelchair, moped, motorcycle, motorcar, goods, hgv and psv. These indicate whether the specific type of transport is allowed to pass through the node or not.

By default for nodes all types of transport are allowed to pass through a node and specific tags must be used to remove the permissions for the transport.

The roundabout Tag

The roundabout tag for mini-roundabouts is recognised and used to improve the description of the route.

Way Tags And Attributes

The tags from the ways in the data are the ones that provide most of the information for routing. The id attribute is used only so that the many segments associated with a way can share a set of tags taken from the way. The nd information is used to identify the nodes that make up the way.

The highway Tag

The most important tag that is used from a way is the highway tag. This defines the type of highway that the way represents. Any way that does not have a highway tag is discarded.

There are more highway types defined than are used by the router. The subset that the router uses are:

Note 1: This changed in version 1.3 of Routino - the bridleway and footway types were included within the path highway type.
Note 2: This changed in version 1.3 of Routino - the steps type was separated from the footway type.

Transport Specific Tags

One tag is recognised for each of the different modes of transport: foot, horse, bicycle, wheelchair, moped, motorcycle, motorcar, goods, hgv and psv. These indicate whether the specific type of transport is allowed on the highway or not.

By default for ways no types of transport are allowed to pass along a highway and specific tags must be used to add the permissions for the transport.

The name Tag

The name tag is used to provide the label for the highway when printing the results.

The ref Tag

The ref tag is used to provide the label for the highway when printing the results.

The lanes Tag

The lanes tag is used to identify whether a highway has multiple lanes for traffic and this is used to derive the multilane highway properties.

The paved Tag

The paved tag is used to identify whether a highway is paved or not, this is one of the available highway properties. A paved tag may exist in the original data but normally the surface tag needs to be transformed into the paved tag.

The multilane Tag

The multilane tag is used to indicate that a highway has multiple lanes for traffic.

The bridge Tag

The bridge tag is used to identify whether a highway is a bridge and therefore set one of the available properties.

The tunnel Tag

The tunnel tag is used to identify whether a highway is a tunnel and therefore set one of the available properties.

The footroute Tag

The footroute tag is used to identify whether a highway is part of a walking route and therefore set one of the available properties. This is not a standard OSM tag and is normally added to the individual highways by looking for route relations that are designated for foot access.

The bicycleroute Tag

The bicycleroute tag is used to identify whether a highway is part of a bicycle route and therefore set one of the available properties. This is not a standard OSM tag and is normally added to the individual highways by looking for route relations that are designated for bicycle access.

The cyclebothways Tag

The cyclebothways tag is used to identify whether a highway allows cycling in the opposite direction to a signposted oneway restriction.

The oneway Tag

The oneway tag is used to specify that traffic is only allowed to travel in one direction.

The roundabout Tag

The roundabout tag is used to specify that a highway is part of a roundabout to improve the description of the calculated route.

The maxspeed Tag

The maxspeed tag is used to specify the maximum speed limit on the highway; this is always measured in km/hr in OpenStreetMap data. If the tag value contains "mph" then it is assumed to be a value in those units and converted to km/hr.

The maxweight Tag

The maxweight tag is used to specify the maximum weight of any traffic on the highway. In other words this must be set to the heaviest weight allowed on the highway (for example a bridge) in tonnes. If the tag value contains "kg" then it is assumed that the value is in these units and converted to tonnes.

The maxheight Tag

The maxheight tag is used to specify the maximum height of any traffic on the highway. In other words this must be set to the lowest height of anything above the highway (like a bridge) in metres. If the tag value contains a measurement in feet or feet and inches then attempts are made to convert this to metres.

The maxwidth Tag

The maxwidth tag is used to specify the maximum width of any traffic on the highway. This must be set to the minimum width of the constraints at the wayside in metres. If the tag value contains a measurement in feet or feet and inches then attempts are made to convert this to metres.

The maxlength Tag

The maxlength tag is used to specify the maximum length of any traffic on the highway (usually from a traffic sign) in metres. If the tag value contains a measurement in feet or feet and inches then attempts are made to convert this to metres.

The area Tag

The area tag is used to specify that a way defines an area. This is used only so that in the case of duplicated segments those belonging to an area can be discarded in preference to those that are not.

Relation Tags And Attributes

The tags from the relations are used to associate more properties with the highways that are part of that relation. The id attribute is used so that relations that are members of other relations can be identified. The member information is used to identify the nodes and ways that make up the relation.

The footroute Tag

The footroute tag is used to identify whether a relation defines a walking route and therefore should be applied to the individual member highways.

The bicycleroute Tag

The bicycleroute tag is used to identify whether a relation defines a bicycle route and therefore should be applied to the individual member highways.

The type, restriction & except Tags

For turn relations the information about the allowed or disallowed turns are stored in the type, restriction and except tags. For a turn restriction the type must be equal to "restriction", the restriction must define the type of turn relation and except defines transport types which are exempt from the restriction.

Tag Transformations

This section describes the set of tag transformations that are contained in the default configuration file. The configuration file tagging rules are applied in sequence and this section of the document is arranged in the same order.

Node Tag Transformations

Barrier Defaults

The first part of the tag transformations is to decide on defaults for each type of node. This uses the barrier tag in the OSM file and converts it into a default set of disallowed transport types.

Transport types through different barrier types
Barrier foot horse wheelchair bicycle moped motorcycle motorcar goods hgv psv
kissing_gate, footgate, stile, v_stile, turnstile, squeeze, squeeze_stile, cycle_barrier, bicycle_barrier yes no no no no no no no no no
horse_stile, horse_jump, step_over yes yes no no no no no no no no
horse_barrier, cattle_grid yes no yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes
motorcyle_barrier yes yes yes yes no no no no no no
bollard, car_barrier, car_trap yes yes yes yes yes yes no no no no

Generic Access Permissions

The access tag is used to specify the default access restrictions through the node. If the tag value is no or private or a selection of other values then all transport types are denied access (later tag transformation rules may add specific transport types back again).

Other Access Permissions

A tag named vehicle means any of the bicycle, moped, motorcycle, motorcar, goods, hgv and psv transport types. A tag named motor_vehicle is transformed to mean any vehicle except a bicycle.

Specific Access Permissions

The final part of the access permissions is to use the specific transport type tags.

One tag is recognised for each of the different modes of transport: foot, horse, bicycle, wheelchair, moped, motorcycle, motorcar, goods, hgv and psv. These indicate whether the specific type of transport is allowed through the node or not; the values listed for the access tag are also accepted here.

Mini-roundabouts

If the highway tag has the value mini_roundabout or the junction tag has the value roundabout then a junction tag with value roundaboutis passed through.

Way Tag Transformations

Highway Defaults

The first part of the tag transformations is to decide on defaults for each type of highway. This uses the highway tag in the OSM file and maps it into one of the highway tags that are recognised by Routino, defining the default allowed transport types and adding a number of properties.

The first part of the highway tag checking is to ignore the highway tag if it has a value that indicates a non-highway. These are the proposed and construction values for future highways, the no, abandoned and disused values for previous highways and a small number of other values.

The second part of the highway transformation is to convert the highway tag into one that is recognised by Routino.

Mapping of equivalent highway types
Original tag Transformed tag
motorway_link motorway
trunk_link trunk
primary_link primary
secondary_link secondary
tertiary_link tertiary
minor, road unclassified
living_street residential
access, services, layby service
byway, unsurfaced, unpaved track
footway, bridleway, pedestrian, walkway path
route=ferry ferry (1)
Note 1: A ferry route is converted into a highway of type "ferry" so that routes using a ferry can be calculated.

The type of highway also determines the defaults for the types of transport allowed on the highway. The default assumptions are as shown in the table below.

Transport types on different highway types
Highway foot horse wheelchair bicycle moped motorcycle motorcar goods hgv psv
motorway no no no no no yes yes yes yes yes
trunk no (1) no (1) no (1) yes yes yes yes yes yes yes
primary yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes
secondary yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes
tertiary yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes
unclassified yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes
residential yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes
service yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes
track yes yes yes yes no no no no no no
cycleway yes no yes yes no no no no no no
path yes yes (2) yes yes (2) no no no no no no
steps yes no no no no no no no no no
ferry (3) no no no no no no no no no no

Note 1: A trunk road may legally allow foot, horse or wheelchair access but in the absence of other tags is considered to be too dangerous.
Note 2: A path allows bicycle or horse access by default only if actually labelled as a highway of type "bridleway".
Note 3: Ferry routes must be explicitly tagged with the allowed transport types, it is not sensible to try to guess.

Finally for the highway tag a number of default properties are added depending on the highway type.

Default properties on different highway types
Highway Properties
motorway paved, oneway, multilane
trunk paved, multilane (1)
primary paved, multilane (1)
secondary paved
tertiary paved
unclassified paved
residential paved
service paved
track paved (2)
cycleway paved
path paved (3)
steps
ferry

Note 1: A highway of this type has the multilane property by default if it is oneway.
Note 2: A track is paved only if it is tagged as tracktype=grade1.
Note 3: A path is paved only if it was originally tagged as highway=walkway or highway=pedestrian.

Generic Access Permissions

The access tag is used to specify the default access restrictions on the highway. If the tag value is no or private or a selection of other values then all transport types are denied access (later tag transformation rules may add specific transport types back again).

Other Access Permissions

A tag named vehicle means any of the bicycle, moped, motorcycle, motorcar, goods, hgv and psv transport types. A tag named motor_vehicle is transformed to mean any vehicle except a bicycle.

The designation tag is used as an alternative method of identifying the legal right of way on a path (in the UK at least). The tag transformations convert these tags into a set of allowed transport types as shown below.

Aliasing of designation types
Designation tag Equivalent access permissions
restricted_byway foot=yes, wheelchair=yes, horse=yes, bicycle=yes
public_byway, byway, byway_open_to_all_traffic foot=yes, wheelchair=yes, horse=yes, bicycle=yes, moped=yes, motorcycle=yes, motorcar=yes
permissive_bridleway, public_bridleway, bridleway foot=yes, wheelchair=yes, horse=yes, bicycle=yes
public_cycleway foot=yes, wheelchair=yes, bicycle=yes
permissive_footpath, public_footpath, footpath foot=yes, wheelchair=yes

In addition to these there are some other tags and values that will modify the transport permissions on the highway.

A highway that is tagged as motorroad with a value of yes will deny access to foot, horse, wheelchair, bicycle and moped transport.

A highway that is tagged with footway or sidewalk and one of a set of popular values will allow foot and wheelchair access even if the road type would not normally do so.

A highway that is tagged as cycleway with one of several values will allow bicycle access. If the value of the cycleway tag is opposite_lane, opposite_track or opposite then the cyclebothways tag is set.

A highway that is tagged as oneway:bicycle with the value no will also cause the cyclebothways tag to be set.

Specific Access Permissions

The final part of the access permissions is to use the specific transport type tags.

One tag is recognised for each of the different modes of transport: foot, horse, bicycle, wheelchair, moped, motorcycle, motorcar, goods, hgv and psv. These indicate whether the specific type of transport is allowed on the highway or not.

Highway Properties

If there is a surface tag then the highway is assumed to be unpaved unless the tag value matches one of the following: paved, asphalt, concrete or many other values listed in the configuration file.

Support for the obsolete paved tag is also provided and the highway is paved if this is set to a true value.

The lanes tag is passed through to be used to set the multilane highway property.

The bridge and tunnel tags are copied directly from the input to the output.

Highway Restrictions

The oneway, maxspeed, maxweight, maxheight, maxwidth and maxlength are copied directly from the input to the output without modification.

Roundabouts

If a highway is tagged as junction=roundabout then a roundabout=yes tag created on the output.

Highway Names and References

The name and ref tags are copied directly from the input to the output.

Highway Areas

The area tag is copied directly from the input to the output.

Relation Tag Transformations

The type tag is passed through without change.

Routes

The route tag can be used to determine whether a relation is part of a walking of bicycle route so that the footroute and bicycleroute properties can be applied to the highways that make up that relation.

The tag transformations that are applied for route relations are defined in the table below.

Route properties from different route types
Relation Tag footroute Property bicycleroute Property
foot, walking, hiking yes no
bicycle no yes
bicycle;foot, foot;bicycle yes yes

Turn Restrictions

No tag transformations are defined for turn restriction relations but the restriction and except tags are passed through without change.